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William "Bill" Koskei – Uganda and Kenya’s 400 Meter-Hurdles’ Champion

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One of Africa’s finest track competitors at the short (400-meter) hurdles, first ran nationally and internationally for neighboring Uganda before migrating eastward back home to his native Kenya. He would thereafter continue competing in the 400m hurdles as well as be part of Kenya’s 4 x 400 meters’ relay team during the 1970’s.

Born on December 28 in 1947, in western Kenya, William “Bill” Koskei, is still remembered as one of the greatest of Uganda’s, Kenya’s, and altogether Africa’s 400-meters hurdlers. Slender Koskei stood at a relatively tall 6’0″.

It was at the East and Central African Championships (an annual event primarily involving track and field stars from Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia) that William Koskei first displayed international prominence. In 1969, these regional championships were held in the Uganda capital Kampala. Uganda runner Koskei won the 400 meter-hurdles gold with a time of 51.4 seconds. In 1972, the same Championships held in the Tanzania capital Dar-es-Salaam, Koskei this time running for his native Kenya, again won in the 400 meter-hurdles with a time of 50.7 seconds. By this time, Somalia and Ethiopia had enlisted their athletes in the championships. In 1977, the same championships held in Somalia capital Mogadishu, William Koskei now nearly 30 years of age, again won the gold in the 400m hurdles, after hitting the tape in 50.6 seconds. Koskei proved that he had maintained stability in his career as an athlete.

Charles Kipkemboi Yego had won in the same event in the East and Central African Championships in the venue of the Kenya capital Nairobi in 1970, winning in a time of 50 seconds. John Akii-Bua of Uganda had won in the 110 meter-hurdles finals at the same Championships held in Kampala in 1969. With the influence of the Uganda national track coach Malcolm Arnold from the United Kingdom, Akii-Bua became convinced that he would reap more rewards as a 400-meter hurdler.

It is in his formerly adopted country of Uganda, that William Koskei is remembered for his most prestigious individual international stint: the silver medal he won in the 400m hurdles at the British Commonwealth Games held in Edinburgh in Scotland from July 16 to 25 in 1970. Running for Uganda, Koskei won in the third heat of the first round, in a time of 51.37 seconds. Next came the semi-finals. Koskei comfortably won in 51.39 seconds, Kenya’s Charles Kipkemboi Yego coming in second in this semi-final in 51.73 seconds. In the finals, John Sherwood of England won in 50.03 seconds, Koskei came in second in 50.15 seconds, Kenyan Charles Kipkemboi Yego came in third in 50.19. Upcoming Ugandan superstar and future golden Olympian John Akii-Bua struggled with a back strain and hernia injury, was trailing last at the final 100 meters, but still raced in fast to come in fourth in 51.14 seconds.

In 1970, Bill Koskei of Uganda became ranked 7th among men 400-meter hurdles runners in the All-Time World Rankings behind hurdlers from rank 1-7 respectively: Jean-Claude Nallet (France), Ralph Mann (USA), Wayne Collett (USA), Ari Salin (Finland), John Sherwood (Great Britain), and Charles Kipkemboi Yego (Kenya). 1970 would be the only year that Koskei would be ranked among the top ten in the world among the All-Time World Rankings. However, “Track and Field New” ranked Kenya’s Koskei as 10th in the world in 1973, and 9th in 1974.

The performance of Commonwealth Games’ silver medalist William Koskei, at the summer Olympics held in Munich in West Germany from August 26, 1972 to September 11, 1972, was very much looked forward to. Although not ranked among the World’s top ten 400m hurdlers in 1972 or even 1972, Koskei was still regarded as an Olympic medal hope. Koskei, together with John Akii-Bua of Uganda reigned as Africa’s top hurdlers. The August 28, 1972 issue of “Sports Illustrated” predictably listed that American Ralph Mann would win Olympic gold, that Bill Koskei would come in second, and that John Akii-Bua of Uganda would win the bronze medal.

The Australian Open Track & Field Championships of 1971-72 took place from March 22-26 in 1972 in Perry Lakes Stadium, Perth, Western Australia. In the second round of the 400m hurdles, on March 25, Bill Koskei took a photo-finishing second place behind Gary Knoke of New South Wales, Australia, in a relatively slow 52.2 seconds. The finals involved much more speed. Gary Knoke won in 49.3 seconds, Bill Koskei came in second in 49.4 seconds, and Bruce Fields of the Victoria territory of Australia run in third in a time of 49.9 seconds.

In July 1971 in Durham in North Carolina, Akii-Bua had won in the hurdles at the Africa vs.USA meet. Akii-Bua proved he was not a fluke by clearly beating African rival Koskei, alongside the rest of the contingent of Africans and Americans, and winning in an impressive personal best of 49.05 seconds. American and number 1 ranked champion Ralph Mann did not show up. He was competing in Europe.

At the Olympic Games in 1972, William Koskei, though running in the favorable lane 4, was disappointingly eliminated in the first round. His fourth place finish in Heat 2, in a time of 50.58 seconds would not carry him onto the next round. It was virtually Koskei’s last chance at the Olympics, given that the next two Olympics, held in Montreal (1976) and Moscow (1980) were boycotted by Kenya and many other nations. It was in 1972 that Koskei was at his peak, the year he ran a personal best of 49 seconds. At the Olympics in 1972, Uganda’s John Akii-Bua would win in a world record of 47.82 seconds, becoming the first man ever to officially run the 400m hurdles in less than 48 seconds. Ralph Mann won silver by several yards away, and former Olympic champion David Hemery of Great Britain racing in a very close third.

The second All-Africa Games were held in January 7-18, 1973 in the Nigeria capital city of Lagos. Bill Koskei made it to the finals of the men’s 400m hurdles. Also in the final line-up was recently crowned Olympic gold medalist and world record holder and nemesis of Koskei, John Akii-Bua of Uganda who was expected to win. Akii-Bua won easily, but what is astonishing is that Akii-Bua won in a very fast time of 48.54s–at that time among the fastest time ever run in the hurdles’ race, and certainly the best time ever on African soil. Koskei grabbed the silver, running nearly a full two seconds (50.22s) behind Akii-Bua, and a photo finish ahead of bronze medalist Silver Ayoo (50.25s) of Uganda. Akii-Bua would soon remark that although he was comfortably far ahead of the pack, as he approached the final bend of the race, a glimpse of the conspicuously military-adorned and revered Nigerian president General Yakubu Gowon high in the stands and watching and cheering, boosted him on to speed up.

The next big international challenge would involve Koskei of Kenya at the British Commonwealth Games held in Christchurch in New Zealand from January 24 to February 2, 1974. In the end William Koskei won a medal at these Commonwealth Games, just as he had done four years earlier. Alan Pascoe of England won in 48.83 seconds, Bruce Field of Australia came in second in 49.32 seconds, and Koskei won the bronze as he came in a photo finishing third in 49.34 seconds.

At these 1974 Commonwealth Games, the finals of the 4x400m relay had legendary Olympic gold medalist Charles Asati start off for Kenya, hand the baton to Francis Musyoki who would in turn hand it to Bill Koskei. Koskei passed the baton on to legendary relay Olympic medalist Julius Sang who bagged in the gold for the Kenya relay team with an overall finishing of 3 minutes 4.43 seconds.

At the Victorian Championships held in 1975 in Olympic Park, in the 400m hurdles, Koskei lost to third place (50.8 seconds) in the Finals to Alan Pascoe (50.4 seconds) of England, Bruce Field (50.6 seconds) of Australia. Koskei’s performance in the 400m hurdles was declining. A few more international performances by Koskei, at the 400m hurdles, were internationally mediocre.

The next British Commonwealth Games were held in 1978, Canada in the territory of Alberta, in the city Edmonton from August 3-12, 1978. Again Bill Koskei participated in Kenya’s gold medal win, and his co-relay Kenyan victors included Washington Njiri, Daniel Kimaiyo, and Joel Ngetich. The winning time in Edmonton was 3.03.54. Kenya had notable consecutively won in the 4x400m men’s relays over the 12 years, in three consecutive Commonwealth Games. It is notable that Africa’s most populous nation and home to many international-standard athletes boycotted the Games for political grievances over affiliated participants with affiliation to apartheid south Africa. Aging Koskei, this time in 1978, did not win any medal in the 400m hurdles, but his countryman Daniel Kimaiyo won gold for Kenya, the first gold for Kenya in the event. William Koskei would soon retire his spikes with some degree of satisfaction. He had dedicatedly ran for two nations and he would retire from competing with two British Commonwealth gold medals, one silver, and one bronze. William “Bill” Koskei will forever be stamped in history as a dedicated national champion who not only commendably represented two African nations, but one who triumphantly bagged gold, silver, and bronze medals at the British Commonwealth and also African Games, but one who was in the 1970’s ranked as one of the best 400m hurdlers in the world.

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Source by Jonathan Musere

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Where to Find Those Efficient and Hardworking Affiliates?

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Everyone wants a hardworking affiliate, employee, associate, partner, or even spouse, and why not? It’s the next best thing to doing the work yourself. However with the massive outbreak of work and income opportunities available online, how can you beat everyone else and find that one (or more) ideal person who will make your online business explode with success? Here are some of the most ingenious and uncommon ways to snag the idea affiliates for your affiliate program

Direct Sales Agents

Direct sales people are really one of the most enterprising, hard-working individuals in business. They mostly work on commissions or rebates and are willing to literally go door-to-door offering their products to anyone and everyone they bump into. Imagine how much easier their job would be if they could be an affiliate and simply work via the Internet and a mobile device or desktop.

Also, most direct sales people tend to carry more than one brand in their product arsenal so signing up as an affiliate would be almost the same type of work but using a different approach.

Colleges and Universities

Many college kids would be interested in a part-time income opportunity if it would mean funds to help pay for their education, loan, or partying. All you have to do is make sure to offer them products they can endorse as a student.

Freelancers

Did you know that the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest annual report show that 75% of U.S. businesses used freelancers in 2011? Freelancers earned a whopping US$990 billion in 2011 which is a 4.1% increase from the previous year. The only industries where the number of freelancers decreased were in insurance, finance, and construction. Most probably your affiliate program isn’t a part of these 3 industries.

Furthermore, online business and finance experts are predicting the growth to increase incrementally every year even with an economy that is improving. People just want income security and more control over their earnings. With the spate of lay-offs, it’s understandable why many would prefer to work as an affiliate than as an employee.

Scout For Them At Affiliate Conventions

There are annual affiliate conventions held in different cities around the country. You should try to catch one when it is held somewhere near your location. The average turn-out for these types of conventions has increased regularly over the years. Last year, many of them were sold out weeks before the event.

Advertise!

The US Census Bureau has said that as of 2012, 15% of Americans are poor, 43% of young adults depend on their parents to some extent for money. Even more surprising is that the median income of young adults in 1982 was $31,583 and last year it was $30,604 for the same age group! Income is dropping and people are looking for ways to earn additional income outside of their 9 to 5 jobs. That’s where you can come in playing the hero and helping others realize their dream income.

Finally, go online and talk about your product. Make the affiliate marketers come to you and have the luxury of picking the best candidates. You will need some help in marketing your affiliate program so target a marketer who’s experienced in affiliate program and SEO.

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Source by Lina Stakauskaite

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Recession Is Here… Six Costly Mistakes Home Sellers Make During Recessions And How To Avoid Them

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The U.S. is officially in a recession. What is a recession? A recession is a business cycle contraction or general economic decline due to significant drop in spending and other commercial activities. Most pundits and politicians will blame Covid-19 crisis for the recession, but even pre-Covid-19 the proverbial writing was on the wall.

The U.S. had over 120 months of economic growth, which was the longest expansion in the modern history. Other indicators, such as negative yield spread on treasuries (long term bonds having lower interest rates than short term T-notes), were pointing to an imminent change of the economic cycle and an impending recession. The only real question was: when and how bad?

Then Covid-19 came… If the cycle was going to change anyway, Covid-19 acted as a huge and unexpected accelerant to make the recession much more immediate and severe.

Inevitably during recessions all classes of real estate, including residential homes and condominiums, will be negatively impacted as lower consumer spending and higher unemployment rates affect real estate prices and marketing times.

Here are the six costly mistakes home and other real property sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them:

Mistake #1: This will pass and real estate market will be hot again soon

First thing to remember is that real estate cycles are much longer than general economic cycles. Even if the general economy recovers, which eventually it always does, a typical real estate cycle takes as long as 10 to 15 years. The cycle has four key stages: Top, Decline, Bottom and Rise.

Let us consider the last real estate cycle, which lasted approximately 14 years:

  • 2006 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2006 to 2012 – Prices Decline
  • 2012 – Prices hit the Bottom (Trough)
  • 2012 to 2019 – Prices Rise*
  • 2020 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2020 to? – Prices Decline

*NOTE: In 2016 the national residential real estate price index reached its pre-recession 2006 peak levels. It took 10 years for the real estate market to recover.

The way to avoid this mistake is to recognize that real estate cycles take years to run and plan accordingly. Additionally, nobody knows for sure when the prices will hit the top or bottom until after the fact.

Mistake #2: Low interest rates will make the economy and real estate market rebound

Between 2006 and 2011 the interest rates (Fed Funds) were continuously cut by the Federal Reserve Board and went from low 5% to almost 0%. However, that did not stop the real estate recession and depreciation of property values.

Undoubtedly, low interest rates made the economic decline and real estate recession less severe and saved some properties from foreclosures, but it still took six painful years for the real estate market to hit the bottom and then four more years for the prices to go back to their pre-recession levels.

Some markets had never fully recovered. For example, residential home prices in some parts of California, Arizona and Nevada are still below their 2006 highs.

To avoid this mistake, one needs to realize that although low interest rates help stimulate the economy and the real estate market, they do not cure them.

Mistake #3: I don’t need to sell now, so I don’t care

If you do not need to sell until the cycle plays out, which typically is over ten years, then you will not be as affected, especially if you have a strong equity position, limited mortgage debt, and solid liquid assets.

However, it is good to keep in mind that “life happens” and either professional or personal circumstances can change and we may need to sell property before the downturn runs its course.

Furthermore, if a property has a mortgages and its value declines to the point being “upside down,” meaning the mortgage loan balance exceeds the value of the property, then the options of selling, refinancing or even obtaining an equity line of credit, will be significantly limited.

This does not mean that everybody should be rushing into selling their real estate if there is no need to do so, just keep in mind that circumstances may and often do change and property options will be affected, so plan in advance. As one wise proverb says: “Dig your well before your thirst.”

Mistake #4: I’m selling, but I won’t sell below my “bottom line” price

This is a common and potentially very costly mistake. Generally speaking, every seller wants to sell for the highest price and every buyer wants to pay the lowest price. That’s nothing new. When selling real estate, most sellers want to achieve a certain price point and/or have a “bottom line.”

However, it is important to understand that the market does not care what the Seller, or his/her Agent, think the property value should be at. The market value is a price a willing and able buyer will pay, when a property is offered on an open market for a reasonable amount of time.

Overpricing property based on Seller’s subjective value or what is sometimes called an “aspirational price,” especially in a declining market, is a sure first step to losing money. When a property lingers on the market for an extended period of time, carrying costs will continue to accumulate and property value will depreciate in line with the market conditions.

Additionally, properties with prolonged marketing times tend to get “stale” and attract fewer buyers. The solution is to honestly assess your selling objectives, including the desired time-frame, evaluate your property’s attributes and physical condition, analyze comparable sales and market conditions, and then decide on market-based pricing and marketing strategies.

Mistake #5: I will list my property for sale only with Agent who promises the highest price

Real estate is a competitive business and real estate agents compete to list properties for sale which generate their sales commission incomes. It is not unusual that Seller will interview several agents before signing an exclusive listing agreement and go with the agent who agrees to list the property at the highest price, often regardless if such price is market-based.

Similarly to Mistake #4, this mistake can be very damaging to Sellers, as overpriced properties stay on the market for extended periods of time costing Sellers carrying expenses such as mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance.

Furthermore, there is the “opportunity cost” since the equity is “frozen,” and it cannot be deployed elsewhere till the property is sold. However, the most expensive cost is the loss of property value while the real estate market deteriorates.

During the last recession, we have seen multiple cases where overpriced properties stayed on the market for years and ended up selling for 25% to 40% below their initial fair market values.

The solution is to make sure that your pricing strategy is based on the market, not empty promises or wishful thinking.

Mistake #6: I will list my property only with Agent who charges the lowest commission

Real estate commission rates are negotiable and not set by law. A commission usually represents the highest transactional expense in selling real properties and is typically split between Brokers and Agents who work on the transaction

Some real estate agents offer discounted commissions, in order to induce Sellers to list their properties with them. But does paying a discounted commission ensure savings for the Seller? Not necessarily.

For example, if the final sales price is 5% to 10% below property’s highest market value, which is not that unusual, due to inadequate marketing, bad pricing strategy, and/or poor negotiation skills, it will easily wipe out any commission savings and actually cost the Seller tens of thousands of dollars in lost revenues.

The solution is to engage an agent who is a “Trusted Advisor,” not just a “Salesperson.” A Trusted Advisor will take his/her time and effort to do the following: 1) Perform Needs Analysis: listen and understand your property needs and concerns; 2) Prepare Property Analysis: thoroughly evaluate your property and market conditions; 3) Execute Sales and Marketing Plan: prepare and implement custom sales and marketing plan for your property; and 4) Obtain Optimal Results: be your trusted advocate throughout the process and achieve the best possible outcome.

Finding such a real estate professional may not be always easy, but it certainly is worth the effort and will pay off at the end.

In conclusion, this article has outlined six costly mistakes real estate Sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them. The first mistake is not understanding that real estate cycles are long and take years. The second mistake is a misconception that low interest rates alone will create a recovery. Another mistake is not realizing that circumstances may change and not planning in advance. Mistakes number four, five and six pertain to understanding the market value, proper pricing and selecting the right real estate professional.

By understanding and avoiding these mistakes, real estate Sellers have significantly better chances of minimizing the negative impact of a recession while selling their properties.

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Source by Robert W. Dudek

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Useful Tips To Build The Best Gaming Computer

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Every gamer will want their computer to be the best gaming computer among their peers. Sometimes, with a little knowledge and tips and tricks, it is possible to build the best gaming computer and show it off to your peers. This article will show you how:

1) You can’t get the best gaming computer from computer retailers

If you want to get the best gaming computer, you have to build your own. Different gamers have different requirement for their gaming machine. Unless you are willing to pay a high price, you will not be able to buy a commercial computer that fulfills all your gaming needs. The only option you have is to build your own gaming computer.

2) You don’t have to be rich to build the best gaming computer

It is not necessary to burn a hole in your pocket to build the best gaming computer. With some due diligence, do some market research and compare prices around the marketplace. Merchant such as TigerDirect and NewEgg give regular discount to their products and you could save a lot of money if you catch them during their promotional period.

3) Most expensive parts do not have to be the best part

Sometime, the latest model or the most expensive model does not have to be the best part for your computer. It requires various components to work together to form the best computer system. When choosing a computer part, what matters is how well it can integrate with the rest of the components. Compatibility is more important than individual performance. What use is there if you spend lot of money on the latest quad-core processor and find that your motherboard doesn’t support it?

4) You don’t need to change the whole PC to own the best gaming computer

It is a misconception that you have to change the whole gaming machine to build the best gaming computer. If you already have a good barebone system, what you need to do is to upgrade the necessary parts and your gaming computer can roar back to life instantly.

5) Brand is important

Unless you want to see your computer system malfunction every few days, it is important that you purchase the parts from branded manufacturers with strict quality control. Motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, ABIT, ASUS are some quality brands that you can consider

If you follow diligently to the tips stated above. You will be on your way to build the best gaming computer. While price can be an issue, it is better not to scrimp on important computer parts such as motherboard, CPU, RAM and graphics card as it will cost you more to upgrade in the future.

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Source by Damien Oh

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