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The Olympics 1960 – Date




Rome 1960

Rome had been chosen to stage the 1908 Olympic Games, but the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in southern Italy had intervened. It was some 52 years later that the Games finally arrived in the Italian capital. The Rome games were broadcast by television to all European countries and were watched by millions. However, the competitions themselves were overshadowed by the rivalry between the US and the USSR. In the final medal table the USSR finished ahead of the US by 43 to 34 gold medals.

Olympic Highlights

o Running barefoot, Ethiopian athlete Abebe Bikila did not go unnoticed when he entered the marathon. He refused to be daunted by the condescending remarks and left all his opponents behind to cross the finishing line victorious, near Constantine’s triumphal arch.

o Aged 20, Wilma Rudolph became the first American woman to win three gold athletics medals in one Olympiad: in the 100m, 200m and 4x100m relay. She achieved this extraordinary feat despite suffering from a string of childhood illnesses and recovering from a deformed leg caused by polio.

o Cassius Marcellus Clay, later known as MuhammadM/, firstgai/ied r’nfernaffonaf prominence by winning the light-heavyweight gold medal. He would later turn professional and embark on a phenomenal career.

Tokyo 1964

For the first time, the Olympic Games were hosted in Asia, Japan invested heavily in the most modern sports facilities as well as in improving the infrastructure of a city containing over 10 million people. The extraordinary architectural design of the swimming stadium led to it being described as a “cathedral of sports”. Other outstanding new buildings included the judo hall, which was modelled on the architectural style of traditional Japanese temples. The opening ceremony offered a glimpse into how record-breaking the competition would be, when teams from 93 nations (10 more than participated in Rome) paraded into the Meiji Stadium. However, the high standards set by athletes at the Tokyo Games led some critics to warn about exaggerated expectations for the future development of the Olympic disciplines.

Olympic Highlights

o Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser (see p.21) won her third successive gold medal in the 100m freestyle. She was the first woman swimmer to win eight medals (four gold and four silver) – over three Olympics.

o Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina (see p.20) added six more medals to her tally, becoming the first woman to win nine Olympic gold medals.

o Deszo Gyarmati won gold with the Hungarian water polo team, thus achieving the (then) unique feat of winning medals at five successive Olympic Games

Mexico City 1968

Mexico City’s high altitude – almost 2,240m (7,350ft) above sea level dominated much of the pre-Games discussion: the consensus being that athletes from lowland countries would be at a disadvantage. However several weeks of high-altitude training enhanced the performances of many of these athletes. There were violent riots in the run-up to the Games, following complaints about the exorbitant amounts of money being invested in Olympic facilities in contrast to Mexico’s own social problems. Controversy also arose over South Africa’s participation at these Games and the IOC withdrew its invitation under pressure. Doping controls were introduced for the first time and a Swedish athlete was disqualified for having too much alcohol in his bloodstream.

Olympic Highlights

o American Bob Beamon was the favorite in the long jump but he exceeded all expectations. His jump of 8.90m beat the world record by 0.55m.

o Czech gymnast Vera Caslavska won four gold and two silver medals. These victories were given extra significance by beating the Soviet gymnasts shortly after Soviet tanks had invaded her homeland.

o American Debbie Meyer became the first woman swimmer to win three individual gold medals at one Olympic Games.

Munich 1972

The 1972 Munich Games were the largest yet, setting records in all categories, with 195 events and 7,134 athletes from 121 nations. The Games were supposed to celebrate peace, and for the first 10 days all went well. But in the early morning of 5 September, eight Palestinian terrorists broke into the Olympic village [], killed two members of the Israeli team, and took nine more hostage. In the ensuing battle, all nine Israeli hostages were killed, along with five of the terrorists, and one policeman. The Olympics were suspended and a memorial service was held in the main stadium. In defiance of the terrorists, the International Olympic Committee ordered the competitions to resume after a pause of 34 hours. All other details about the Munich Games paled in significance.

Olympic Highlights

o Finnish distance runner Lasse Viren fell halfway through the 10,000m final, but still set a new world record to win the first of his four career gold medals.

o The media star of the Munich Games was the petite Soviet gymnast Olga Korbut, whose three gold medals helped establish Soviet dominance in the female gymnastics events and captured the attention of fans worldwide.

Montreal 1976

The 1976 Montreal Games were marred by the boycott of 22 African nations protesting the fact that despite the New Zealand rugby team touring South Africa in defiance of international sporting sanctions, New Zealand was still allowed to compete. To compound the situation, the host nation suffered an unusually long winter, industrial disputes, and a lack of funds, which made it impossible to finish work on the Olympic facilities in time for the opening ceremony. However, the performances of the athletes did not suffer from the political and national disputes. Despite the problems, the Games were well organized and, following the 1972 terrorist attack in Munich, security was tight.

Olympic Highlights

o Nadia Comaneci was the star of the Games. She achieved her first perfect 10 on the uneven parallel bars, and the judges awarded her the maximum mark seven times.

o With his victory in platform diving, Italian Klaus Dibiasi became the first Olympic diver to win three successive gold medals, and to win medals in four Olympic Games.

o The US and East Germany dominated the swimming events. Only Great Britain’s David Wilkie and the Soviet Union’s Marina Koshevaya (both winning their 200m finals in record times) upset the monopoly.

Moscow 1980

As a result of the US-led boycott in protest at the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, only 80 countries were represented at the Moscow Games []. Notable absentees included Japan, West Germany, and the US. Western countries have frequently referred to the Moscow Games as being of a low standard, and have raised doubts about the sporting value of the results and medals. Nonetheless, although not of the highest calibre, the Moscow Games were hardly sub-standard: 36 world records, 39 European records, and 73 Olympic records bore testimony to the high level of talent and competition on display.

Olympic Highlights

o Soviet swimmer Vladimir Salnikov won three gold medals: in the 400m and 1,500m freestyle, and 4x200m relay. He was also the first to swim 1,500m in a time of less than 15 minutes.

o British middle-distance runners Steve Ovett and Sebastian Coe faced each other in two memorable duels. In the 800m, Ovett won the gold medal just ahead of his compatriot. Six days later, a determined Coe redeemed himself in the 1,500m, taking gold while Ovett could only manage bronze.

o By winning the decathlon, Great Britain’s Daley Thompson became “king of the athletes”, beating home crowd favourite Yuri Kutsenko into second place.

Los Angeles 1984

Although a revenge boycott led by the Soviet Union depleted the field in certain sports, a record 140 nations took part in the first privately funded tournament in Olympic history. More than 30 sponsors together contributed more than $500 million, while other companies funded the building of new sports facilities, in a deal that allowed them to advertise on the admission tickets. The ABC television network paid $225 million for the exclusive television rights, thereby ensuring that most events started in the evenings during prime television time in the US. With these vast amounts of money involved, many critics held the view that what had once been a festival of amateur sport was now a purely commercial spectacle.

Olympic Highlights

o American diver Greg Louganis remained unbeaten from the 3m springboard as well as from the 10m platform.

o Sebastian Coe became the first repeat winner of the men’s 1,500m.

o In the women’s 400m hurdles, Nawal El Moutawakel led from start to finish, becoming the first Moroccan athlete to win a gold medal.

o British decathlete gold medallist Daley Thompson finished just one point off the world record.

Seoul 1988

Happily, the large-scale boycotts of Moscow and Los Angeles did not recur at Seoul. For the first time in 12 years, all leading Olympic nations, except Cuba and Ethiopia, took part in the Olympic Games. Although the drug disqualification of sprinter Ben Johnson became the biggest story of the 1988 Olympics, the Seoul Games were highlighted by numerous exceptional performances and 27 new world records. Once again the Soviet Union (55 gold medals) and East Germany (37) demonstrated their sporting superiority over the Western nations by finishing first and second in the medal table.

Olympic Highlights

o American swimmer Matt Biondi won seven medals, including five gold. His gold medals came in the 50m and 100m freestyle, and all three relays.

o Soviet pole-vaulter Serguei Bubka won his first gold medal, clearing 5.90m at the third attempt. Despite being a world record holder and dominating the sport for 14 years (1983-97), it was his only Olympic medal.

o West German speed skater and cyclist Christa Luding-Rothenburger made Olympic history after becoming the first person to win Summer and Winter Olympic medals in the same year. After winning gold and silver in the speed skating at Calgary, she won silver in the 1,000m sprint cycling.

Barcelona 1992

Spanish IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch brought the Games to his home city of Barcelona, expressing his gratitude to the Games’ sponsors at the final celebrations. The IOC received millions of dollars in revenue from the sale of television broadcasting rights, although many athletes complained that the start times of many events were arranged to suit primetime television advertising slots. Teams from a post-apartheid South Africa and a unified Germany were welcomed back onto the world stage. Men’s basketball was open to professionals for the first time, allowing the creation of an American “Dream Team”, which included Magic Johnson, Michael Jordan, Larry Bird, and Charles Barkley.

Olympic Highlights

o Spaniard Fermin Cacho Ruiz was not one of the favourites in the 1,500m. Taking

advantage of the fact that the race was run at an unusually slow pace, he started his sprint with half a lap to go and with the crowd behind him, took gold, becoming the first Spanish runner ever to win a gold medal.

o Great Britain’s Linford Christie is the oldest man (32 years) to win Olympic gold in the 100m. He added the World Championship title the following year.

o In the closely fought women’s 100m, Jamaican Merlene Ottey was just 0.06 seconds behind the winner yet still only finished in fifth place.

Atlanta 1996

The 1996 Atlanta Games were given a poignant start when the cauldron was lit by a visibly shaking Muhammad All, by this time suffering from Parkinson’s disease. On 27 July, during a concert held in the Centennial Olympic Park, a terrorist bomb killed one person and injured a further 110 people, but the Atlanta Games are best remembered for their sporting achievements, including Michael Johnson’s extraordinary 200m and 400m double victory. A record-setting 79 nations won medals, 53 of them winning gold.

Olympic Highlights

o French runner Marie-Jose Perec won the 200m and 400m, breaking the 400m Olympic record and becoming the first woman to win the 400m at two consecutive Olympics. She is the most successful French female athlete of all time.

o Russian swimmer Aleksandr Popov won two gold medals in the 50m and 100m freestyle – overtaking American swimmer Gary Hall, Jr on both occasions – and two silver medals in the relays.

o Maim Suleymanoglu of Turkey became the first weightlifler to win three consecutive Olympic titles.

o American Michael Johnson’s double gold over 200m and 400m was the first for a man in Olympic history.

Sydney 2000

The Sydney Games were the largest yet, with 10,651 athletes competing in 300 events. Despite their size, the Games were well organized, renewing faith in the Olympic Movement. Athletes from North and South Korea marched together under the same flag, while four athletes from East Timor (it only became a sovereign state in 2002) were allowed to participate under the Olympic flag as individual athletes. Cathy Freeman, an indigenous Australian, was given the honour of lighting the Olympic flame in the opening ceremony, and repaid the compliment by winning the 400m final in front of an ecstatic home crowd.

Olympic Highlights

o After being kept away from competitions for over a year by serious shoulder and back problems, French judo champion David Douillet won his second consecutive Olympic gold by beating Shinichi Shinohara of Japan in an exciting final.

o 17-year-old Australian swimming sensation Ian Thorpe won his first gold medal in the 400m freestyle by breaking his own world record. He then swam the anchor leg in the 4x100m freestyle to win again. A third gold came from the 4x200m freestyle, and he added a silver medal in the 200m freestyle.

o German canoeist Birgit Fischer won two golds in the K-2 and K-4 500m to become the first female Olympian to win medals 20 years apart.

Athens 2004

In 2004 the Olympic Games returned to Greece, home of both the ancient Olympics and the first modern Olympics, For the first time ever, a record 201 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Olympic Games, The overall tally for events on the programme was 301 (one more than in Sydney 2000). The popularity of the Games soared to new heights as 3.9 billion people had access to the television coverage, compared to 3.6 billion for Sydney 2000.

Olympic Highlights

o Moroccan Hicham El Guerrouj became the first runner since Paavo Nurmi in 1924 to win both the 1,500m and the 5,000m. In the 1,500m, he was passed by Bernard Lagat in the home stretch, but came back to win. In the 5,000m, he came from behind to defeat 10,000m champion Kenenisa Bekele.

o Turkish weightlifter Nurcan Taylan won the gold medal in the women’s 48kg category. She was the first Turkish woman in any sport to win an Olympic championship.

o Argentina’s men’s basketball team put an end to the domination of the US’s professionals, defeating them 89-81 in the semi-finals. The Argentinians went on to beat Italy 84-69 in the final.

o German canoeist Birgit Fischer became the youngest and oldest Olympic canoeing gold medallist, winning her gold medals in K-1 and K-4 500m -24 years apart, and the first female athlete to win gold in six different Olympics.


Source by Harwood E Woodpecker

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Where to Find Those Efficient and Hardworking Affiliates?




Everyone wants a hardworking affiliate, employee, associate, partner, or even spouse, and why not? It’s the next best thing to doing the work yourself. However with the massive outbreak of work and income opportunities available online, how can you beat everyone else and find that one (or more) ideal person who will make your online business explode with success? Here are some of the most ingenious and uncommon ways to snag the idea affiliates for your affiliate program

Direct Sales Agents

Direct sales people are really one of the most enterprising, hard-working individuals in business. They mostly work on commissions or rebates and are willing to literally go door-to-door offering their products to anyone and everyone they bump into. Imagine how much easier their job would be if they could be an affiliate and simply work via the Internet and a mobile device or desktop.

Also, most direct sales people tend to carry more than one brand in their product arsenal so signing up as an affiliate would be almost the same type of work but using a different approach.

Colleges and Universities

Many college kids would be interested in a part-time income opportunity if it would mean funds to help pay for their education, loan, or partying. All you have to do is make sure to offer them products they can endorse as a student.


Did you know that the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest annual report show that 75% of U.S. businesses used freelancers in 2011? Freelancers earned a whopping US$990 billion in 2011 which is a 4.1% increase from the previous year. The only industries where the number of freelancers decreased were in insurance, finance, and construction. Most probably your affiliate program isn’t a part of these 3 industries.

Furthermore, online business and finance experts are predicting the growth to increase incrementally every year even with an economy that is improving. People just want income security and more control over their earnings. With the spate of lay-offs, it’s understandable why many would prefer to work as an affiliate than as an employee.

Scout For Them At Affiliate Conventions

There are annual affiliate conventions held in different cities around the country. You should try to catch one when it is held somewhere near your location. The average turn-out for these types of conventions has increased regularly over the years. Last year, many of them were sold out weeks before the event.


The US Census Bureau has said that as of 2012, 15% of Americans are poor, 43% of young adults depend on their parents to some extent for money. Even more surprising is that the median income of young adults in 1982 was $31,583 and last year it was $30,604 for the same age group! Income is dropping and people are looking for ways to earn additional income outside of their 9 to 5 jobs. That’s where you can come in playing the hero and helping others realize their dream income.

Finally, go online and talk about your product. Make the affiliate marketers come to you and have the luxury of picking the best candidates. You will need some help in marketing your affiliate program so target a marketer who’s experienced in affiliate program and SEO.


Source by Lina Stakauskaite

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Recession Is Here… Six Costly Mistakes Home Sellers Make During Recessions And How To Avoid Them




The U.S. is officially in a recession. What is a recession? A recession is a business cycle contraction or general economic decline due to significant drop in spending and other commercial activities. Most pundits and politicians will blame Covid-19 crisis for the recession, but even pre-Covid-19 the proverbial writing was on the wall.

The U.S. had over 120 months of economic growth, which was the longest expansion in the modern history. Other indicators, such as negative yield spread on treasuries (long term bonds having lower interest rates than short term T-notes), were pointing to an imminent change of the economic cycle and an impending recession. The only real question was: when and how bad?

Then Covid-19 came… If the cycle was going to change anyway, Covid-19 acted as a huge and unexpected accelerant to make the recession much more immediate and severe.

Inevitably during recessions all classes of real estate, including residential homes and condominiums, will be negatively impacted as lower consumer spending and higher unemployment rates affect real estate prices and marketing times.

Here are the six costly mistakes home and other real property sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them:

Mistake #1: This will pass and real estate market will be hot again soon

First thing to remember is that real estate cycles are much longer than general economic cycles. Even if the general economy recovers, which eventually it always does, a typical real estate cycle takes as long as 10 to 15 years. The cycle has four key stages: Top, Decline, Bottom and Rise.

Let us consider the last real estate cycle, which lasted approximately 14 years:

  • 2006 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2006 to 2012 – Prices Decline
  • 2012 – Prices hit the Bottom (Trough)
  • 2012 to 2019 – Prices Rise*
  • 2020 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2020 to? – Prices Decline

*NOTE: In 2016 the national residential real estate price index reached its pre-recession 2006 peak levels. It took 10 years for the real estate market to recover.

The way to avoid this mistake is to recognize that real estate cycles take years to run and plan accordingly. Additionally, nobody knows for sure when the prices will hit the top or bottom until after the fact.

Mistake #2: Low interest rates will make the economy and real estate market rebound

Between 2006 and 2011 the interest rates (Fed Funds) were continuously cut by the Federal Reserve Board and went from low 5% to almost 0%. However, that did not stop the real estate recession and depreciation of property values.

Undoubtedly, low interest rates made the economic decline and real estate recession less severe and saved some properties from foreclosures, but it still took six painful years for the real estate market to hit the bottom and then four more years for the prices to go back to their pre-recession levels.

Some markets had never fully recovered. For example, residential home prices in some parts of California, Arizona and Nevada are still below their 2006 highs.

To avoid this mistake, one needs to realize that although low interest rates help stimulate the economy and the real estate market, they do not cure them.

Mistake #3: I don’t need to sell now, so I don’t care

If you do not need to sell until the cycle plays out, which typically is over ten years, then you will not be as affected, especially if you have a strong equity position, limited mortgage debt, and solid liquid assets.

However, it is good to keep in mind that “life happens” and either professional or personal circumstances can change and we may need to sell property before the downturn runs its course.

Furthermore, if a property has a mortgages and its value declines to the point being “upside down,” meaning the mortgage loan balance exceeds the value of the property, then the options of selling, refinancing or even obtaining an equity line of credit, will be significantly limited.

This does not mean that everybody should be rushing into selling their real estate if there is no need to do so, just keep in mind that circumstances may and often do change and property options will be affected, so plan in advance. As one wise proverb says: “Dig your well before your thirst.”

Mistake #4: I’m selling, but I won’t sell below my “bottom line” price

This is a common and potentially very costly mistake. Generally speaking, every seller wants to sell for the highest price and every buyer wants to pay the lowest price. That’s nothing new. When selling real estate, most sellers want to achieve a certain price point and/or have a “bottom line.”

However, it is important to understand that the market does not care what the Seller, or his/her Agent, think the property value should be at. The market value is a price a willing and able buyer will pay, when a property is offered on an open market for a reasonable amount of time.

Overpricing property based on Seller’s subjective value or what is sometimes called an “aspirational price,” especially in a declining market, is a sure first step to losing money. When a property lingers on the market for an extended period of time, carrying costs will continue to accumulate and property value will depreciate in line with the market conditions.

Additionally, properties with prolonged marketing times tend to get “stale” and attract fewer buyers. The solution is to honestly assess your selling objectives, including the desired time-frame, evaluate your property’s attributes and physical condition, analyze comparable sales and market conditions, and then decide on market-based pricing and marketing strategies.

Mistake #5: I will list my property for sale only with Agent who promises the highest price

Real estate is a competitive business and real estate agents compete to list properties for sale which generate their sales commission incomes. It is not unusual that Seller will interview several agents before signing an exclusive listing agreement and go with the agent who agrees to list the property at the highest price, often regardless if such price is market-based.

Similarly to Mistake #4, this mistake can be very damaging to Sellers, as overpriced properties stay on the market for extended periods of time costing Sellers carrying expenses such as mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance.

Furthermore, there is the “opportunity cost” since the equity is “frozen,” and it cannot be deployed elsewhere till the property is sold. However, the most expensive cost is the loss of property value while the real estate market deteriorates.

During the last recession, we have seen multiple cases where overpriced properties stayed on the market for years and ended up selling for 25% to 40% below their initial fair market values.

The solution is to make sure that your pricing strategy is based on the market, not empty promises or wishful thinking.

Mistake #6: I will list my property only with Agent who charges the lowest commission

Real estate commission rates are negotiable and not set by law. A commission usually represents the highest transactional expense in selling real properties and is typically split between Brokers and Agents who work on the transaction

Some real estate agents offer discounted commissions, in order to induce Sellers to list their properties with them. But does paying a discounted commission ensure savings for the Seller? Not necessarily.

For example, if the final sales price is 5% to 10% below property’s highest market value, which is not that unusual, due to inadequate marketing, bad pricing strategy, and/or poor negotiation skills, it will easily wipe out any commission savings and actually cost the Seller tens of thousands of dollars in lost revenues.

The solution is to engage an agent who is a “Trusted Advisor,” not just a “Salesperson.” A Trusted Advisor will take his/her time and effort to do the following: 1) Perform Needs Analysis: listen and understand your property needs and concerns; 2) Prepare Property Analysis: thoroughly evaluate your property and market conditions; 3) Execute Sales and Marketing Plan: prepare and implement custom sales and marketing plan for your property; and 4) Obtain Optimal Results: be your trusted advocate throughout the process and achieve the best possible outcome.

Finding such a real estate professional may not be always easy, but it certainly is worth the effort and will pay off at the end.

In conclusion, this article has outlined six costly mistakes real estate Sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them. The first mistake is not understanding that real estate cycles are long and take years. The second mistake is a misconception that low interest rates alone will create a recovery. Another mistake is not realizing that circumstances may change and not planning in advance. Mistakes number four, five and six pertain to understanding the market value, proper pricing and selecting the right real estate professional.

By understanding and avoiding these mistakes, real estate Sellers have significantly better chances of minimizing the negative impact of a recession while selling their properties.


Source by Robert W. Dudek

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Useful Tips To Build The Best Gaming Computer




Every gamer will want their computer to be the best gaming computer among their peers. Sometimes, with a little knowledge and tips and tricks, it is possible to build the best gaming computer and show it off to your peers. This article will show you how:

1) You can’t get the best gaming computer from computer retailers

If you want to get the best gaming computer, you have to build your own. Different gamers have different requirement for their gaming machine. Unless you are willing to pay a high price, you will not be able to buy a commercial computer that fulfills all your gaming needs. The only option you have is to build your own gaming computer.

2) You don’t have to be rich to build the best gaming computer

It is not necessary to burn a hole in your pocket to build the best gaming computer. With some due diligence, do some market research and compare prices around the marketplace. Merchant such as TigerDirect and NewEgg give regular discount to their products and you could save a lot of money if you catch them during their promotional period.

3) Most expensive parts do not have to be the best part

Sometime, the latest model or the most expensive model does not have to be the best part for your computer. It requires various components to work together to form the best computer system. When choosing a computer part, what matters is how well it can integrate with the rest of the components. Compatibility is more important than individual performance. What use is there if you spend lot of money on the latest quad-core processor and find that your motherboard doesn’t support it?

4) You don’t need to change the whole PC to own the best gaming computer

It is a misconception that you have to change the whole gaming machine to build the best gaming computer. If you already have a good barebone system, what you need to do is to upgrade the necessary parts and your gaming computer can roar back to life instantly.

5) Brand is important

Unless you want to see your computer system malfunction every few days, it is important that you purchase the parts from branded manufacturers with strict quality control. Motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, ABIT, ASUS are some quality brands that you can consider

If you follow diligently to the tips stated above. You will be on your way to build the best gaming computer. While price can be an issue, it is better not to scrimp on important computer parts such as motherboard, CPU, RAM and graphics card as it will cost you more to upgrade in the future.


Source by Damien Oh

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