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Naftali Temu – Kenya’s First Golden Olympian




The runner Naftali Nabiba Temu who competed with his older legendary friend, idol, nemesis and fellow countryman Hezekiah Kipchoge Keino, is most significantly renowned for being the first ever Kenyan Olympic gold medalist. During the 1968 Olympic Games that were held in Mexico City, Naftali Temu not only won this gold medal in the 10000 meter run, but was cemented in history as the very first athlete to be crowned with a gold medal at these Olympics. Back home from Mexico, the Kenya athletes were sporting sombreros as they walked from the plane at Nairobi International Airport. A beaming Keino walked with the slender Temu sitting comfortably on his shoulders.

At 5’9″ and less than 140 pounds, Naftali Temu was noticeably lean and diminutive. He strode easily and relaxedly. Of the east African Kisii (Gusii) ethnic group, Temu was born in the northern Kisii District of Nyamira in Nyanza Province in southwestern Kenya on April 20, 1945. Temu did not start running competitively until he was in his early teens. But Temu lived in hilly terrain where he herded cattle and often ran long distances as part of fulfilling domestic duties and going to school. With an elementary school education, Temu left school and became a soldier in the Kenya Army.

A milestone in promising Temu’s athletics’ career came in the East African Championships (originally contested by Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania). The Championships were held in Kisumu in Kenya in 1964. Temu’s gold medal win was in the 10000m, in 28:35.7. During August 1964, 19 year-old Temu, also in Kisumu, won in the six miles in 28:30.4. This confirmed him as second on the world-junior ranking, and also inclusion in the Kenya Olympics’ team that would be bound for Tokyo in two months.

It was in 1964 (October 10 – 24) that, for the first time in history, an Asian country Japan hosted the Olympics. These Games held in Tokyo were Temu’s first significant opportunity at an international competition. Temu would go on to even represent Kenya at the next two Olympic gatherings along with compatriot Kip Keino. In Tokyo ’64, Temu was only 19, promising but young and inexperienced. He was entered for the 10,000 meters and the marathon. In the 10,000 meters’ finals, only one runner–Gerry Lindgren (aged 18) of the United States–was younger than Temu. Future world-record holder Lindgren would finish 9th, slowed down by a sprained ankle. Many consider Lindgren the greatest of American high school long-distance runners. Temu was unfortunately one of the nine out of 38 competitors that did not finish the race, on October 14. Nevertheless this final proved to be one of the most exciting in the history of the distance. In a photo-finish, the surprise winner was Billy Mills (future world-record holder) of the United States who edged out legendary Mohammed Gammoudi of Tunisia and gold medal hope Ron Clarke of Australia. Renowned Ethiopian runner Mamo Wolde, without shoes on, finished fourth.

In the marathon, Temu finished 49th in 2-40: 46.6. The marathon was won by legendary Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia in 2-12: 11.2, more than four minutes ahead of the runner-up Basil Heatley of Great Britain. Mamo Wolde, hampered by a leg injury did not finish; but his younger brother Demissie Wolde was 10th, while Ron Clarke was 9th and nearly a minute ahead of Wolde.

A sigh of encouragement would come to Temu, in the following year of 1965, when he became the Kenya national champion at the 6 miles by winning in June in Mombasa

The inaugural All-Africa Games were held in Brazzaville in Congo from July 18-25 in 1965. Temu won the silver medal in the 5000m, beaten by fellow countryman Kip Keino. In these Games, United Arab Republic (the then union between Egypt and Syria) was the overall win, followed by Nigeria, then Kenya coming in third. The Games were considered successful, and highlighted by the rising African athletes on the international scene.

At 1966 British Commonwealth Games held (August 4 – 11) in Kingston in Jamaica, Temu notably won gold in the 6 mile distance (which at is nearly 400 meters less than 10,000 meters), clearly beating runner-up and 10000m world record holder Ron Clarke. Temu’s time was 27:14.6, while Clarke’s was 27:39. The progression of the race had seen Temu and Clarke break away quickly from the rest of the field in the first stages of the race. At the halfway mark, the two were running at world record-breaking pace. But Clarke’s persistence failed to discourage the young Temu. And with four laps left, Temu impressively broke away from Clarke and established a big gap

In the 6 miles, Jim Adler of Scotland was third, finishing in more than a minute behind Temu. Nevertheless, Adler one the marathon in Kingston, and went on to win the silver in the same event in these Games held in Edinburgh in Scotland in 1970. In Kingston, Ron Clarke won another silver medal, this time coming in second to Kipchoge Keino in the 5000m. Clarke also notably won a silver in the 10000m in the Commonwealth Games held in Edinburgh in 1970. As for Temu, his time in the 6 mile-run was an impressive Commonwealth Games record (over a minute shaved off the record) and it still stands following the prevalent metric standardization of the races. Temu’s 27:14.6 was also the fourth best time ever, in the world. Also, notably, before the starting of the 6-mile final in Kingston, Ron Clarke’s world record in this event was twenty seconds faster than anyone else had ever run and it was more than a minute faster than Temu’s best at the distance.

Just two days after the 6 mile win, Temu impressively finished fourth in the 3 miles run (4827 meters) behind Keino, Clarke, and Allan Rushmer (England) respectively

In the 1967 East African Championships, held in Kisumu in Kenya, Naftali Temu won gold in the 10000m in 28:53.6. This was for Temu a major tune-up for the Olympic Games that would be held in the challenging high-altitude and thin-air atmosphere of Mexico City, from October 12 to 27 in the following year. But Kenyan runners were expected to perform relatively well in Mexico City, given that most of them lived in high altitude environments of western Kenya that simulate the conditions of Mexico City. Just months before the Olympics in Mexico City, Temu again won in the 10000m in 28:20 which became his best time (and ultimate historical personal best) in the event at these regional Games. They were held in Dar-es-Salaam in Tanzania in 1968.

In Mexico City, in 1968, Temu had improved and triumphed significantly over the last few years and was hence regarded as a medal hope. In addition to the 10000m in which he had accumulated most victories, Temu was also scheduled to represent Kenya in the 5000m and in the marathon. As for the 10000m then environmental conditions in Mexico City proved to be grueling, and the pace of the finals was noticeably slow. But with its pack of competing legends and promising runners, it proved to be one of the most memorable in the history of the history of long-distance running. Competitor Ron Clarke had astoundingly shattered the 10000m world record in Oslo in a time of 27: 39.4, the previous record 36.2 seconds slower and Clarke the first man to ever run the distance in less than 28 minutes! But yes, Temu had beaten Clarke at the British Commonwealth Games held in 1966. The altitude of Mexico City would likely be a negative factor for Clarke who was born and trained at sea-level.

The 10000m pace was noticeably slow from the beginning! It was host country’s Juan Martinez who captured the lead in the 19th lap, inevitably drawing applause in what was the first competition of the Games. With two laps remaining, four fellows familiar with each other became the leading pack: Temu, Clarke, Mamo Wolde, and Mohammed Gammoudi. But in the lap preceding the final one, Mamo Wolde aged 36 (by far the oldest in the pack) raced away with only Temu fiercingly clinging a few strides behind. Temu was able to break away in a final stride, overtaking Wolde at 50 meters before the finish. Kipchoge Keino, who had collapsed from sickness and exhaustion during the same race and was unable to continue, was standing in the tracks and about to embrace and congratulate Kenya’s first Olympic gold medalist! Clarke’s last two laps were grueling and he collapsed and nearly died at the finishing line where he finished sixth. Clarke’s heart was permanently damaged, and an Australian doctor who attended to him at the finishing line was even sobbing as he was emotionally overcome by the medically challenging condition of Ron Clarke. Nevertheless, Clarke later commendably went on to be placed fifth in the finals of the 5000m. As for the 10000 meters, the final tally was Temu (29: 27.40), Wolde (29:27.75), Mohammed Gammoudi (29:34.2), 21 year-old Juan Martinez (29:35.0), Nikolay Sviridov of the Soviet Union (29:43.2), and Ron Clarke (29:44.8). Six finalists, including Keino, did not finish!

A couple of days later saw Naftali contest in the semi-final heats of the 5000m race. He was in the second heat, and he managed to emerge first, followed by rival Ron Clarke. The first five in each of the three heats were placed in the finals. The first heat had witnessed Keino beat second-placed Mohammed Gammoudi, followed by Mamo Wolde. Four days after the historical 10000m win, Temu was therefore placed in the finals off the 5000m run. Temu, along with Kip Keino and Mohammed Gammoudi staged an exciting close and last-lap sprint. Gammoudi emerged triumphant in 14:05.01, in a photo-finish with Keino (14:05.16), and bronze medalist Temu close by in 14:06.4. Juan Martinez of Mexico was fourth in 14:10.8. and Ron Clarke was fifth in 14:12.4.

Only three days later, on October 20, only a week after he had won in the 10000m, Temu was confronted with the marathon! It was held on the final day of track and field competition, beginning at 3pm on a warm (73 degrees F.). As usual, Mexico City lying at an altitude of 7350 feet would prove challenging for the long-distance runners, given that oxygen density in the air decreases with additional elevation. Just like in the other long-distance races, this pace was quite slow and the first stages of the race saw many of the competitors bunched together. Temu did take the lead after three-quarters of the way. But exhaustion from competing and winning medals in two previous long distance runs, must have taken a toll on Temu. Ultimately, Temu slowed down to a pedestrian pace and ended up being 19th in a time of 2:32:36.0. The winner by a wide margin was 36 year-old Ethiopian nemesis Mamo Wolde (2-20:26.4), followed by Kenji Kimihara of Japan (2-23:31.0), and the bronze medalist was Mike Ryan of New Zealand in 2-23:45.0. Of note is that legendary Ethiopian gold medalist in the previous two Olympics, 36 year-old Abebe Bikila, dropped out of the race after foot injuries took a toll on him. Nearly 20 runners did not finish the race.

The Olympics of 1968 would prove to be Temu’s climactic moment in his running career. In 1969, at the East and Central African Championships in which Zambia was included alongside Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, Temu successfully defended his 10000m title in winning in a time of 28:54.8. This regional meet was held in Kampala, Uganda.

During 1970, the wear and tear on Temu’s thin body was evident. His slight build, in spite of his achievements, was vulnerable. He struggled with problems with his feet. In the British Commonwealth Games that were held in Edinburgh in Scotland, Temu emerged a disappointing 19th in the 10000m. Here, veteran nemesis Ron Clarke won the silver medal in 28:13, slightly behind Lachie Stewart of Scotland (28:12), and ahead of bronze medalist Dick Taylor (28:15) of England. Nevertheless, determined Temu still posted both his personal bests in the 5000m (13.36.6) and 10000m (28.21.8) in 1971.

Temu was set to defend his 10000m olympic win in the Games held in Munich in Germany in 1972. On August 31, Temu disappointed the athletics’ world by finishing 12th in heat one in a pedestrian time of 30:19.6. Just the first five in each of the three heats would move on to the finals. The eventual gold medalist was Lasse Viren of Finland in a new world record of 27:38.35, followed by legendary 24-year old Emiel Adrien “Miel” Puttemans of Belgium (27:39.58), and legendary Ethiopian Miruts Yifter in 27:40.96). This time, a historical run had left fading Temu out of the picture! Mohammed Gammoudi of Tunisia was the only finalist that dropped out of the race and therefore did not finish.

At only age 28, Naftali Temu retired from competitive running in 1973. He was allocated farmland (in North Mugirango) in his homeland of Nyamira District, a token of appreciation of his national and international sports achievements, by Kenya President Jomo Kenyatta.

Early in January 2003, Temu was transferred from a hospital in his Kisii town in his native western Kenya region to the more equipped and modern Kenyatta National Hospital in the capital Nairobi. But his prostate cancer and kidney problems had considerably advanced, Temu could not talk or walk. On March 10, only a month a way from his 58th birthday, Naftali Temu died. Many Kenyans feel that the government’s neglecting of this national hero led to or hastened his death. His condition had been diagnosed months, earlier, but Temu did not afford the costs of treating or alleviating his condition, that were hundreds of dollars. However, the costs of Temu’s medical treatment at Kenyatta Hospital were waived. Soon after his death the Naftali Temu Memorial Race was established in honor of Naftali Temu.


Source by Jonathan Musere

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Where to Find Those Efficient and Hardworking Affiliates?




Everyone wants a hardworking affiliate, employee, associate, partner, or even spouse, and why not? It’s the next best thing to doing the work yourself. However with the massive outbreak of work and income opportunities available online, how can you beat everyone else and find that one (or more) ideal person who will make your online business explode with success? Here are some of the most ingenious and uncommon ways to snag the idea affiliates for your affiliate program

Direct Sales Agents

Direct sales people are really one of the most enterprising, hard-working individuals in business. They mostly work on commissions or rebates and are willing to literally go door-to-door offering their products to anyone and everyone they bump into. Imagine how much easier their job would be if they could be an affiliate and simply work via the Internet and a mobile device or desktop.

Also, most direct sales people tend to carry more than one brand in their product arsenal so signing up as an affiliate would be almost the same type of work but using a different approach.

Colleges and Universities

Many college kids would be interested in a part-time income opportunity if it would mean funds to help pay for their education, loan, or partying. All you have to do is make sure to offer them products they can endorse as a student.


Did you know that the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest annual report show that 75% of U.S. businesses used freelancers in 2011? Freelancers earned a whopping US$990 billion in 2011 which is a 4.1% increase from the previous year. The only industries where the number of freelancers decreased were in insurance, finance, and construction. Most probably your affiliate program isn’t a part of these 3 industries.

Furthermore, online business and finance experts are predicting the growth to increase incrementally every year even with an economy that is improving. People just want income security and more control over their earnings. With the spate of lay-offs, it’s understandable why many would prefer to work as an affiliate than as an employee.

Scout For Them At Affiliate Conventions

There are annual affiliate conventions held in different cities around the country. You should try to catch one when it is held somewhere near your location. The average turn-out for these types of conventions has increased regularly over the years. Last year, many of them were sold out weeks before the event.


The US Census Bureau has said that as of 2012, 15% of Americans are poor, 43% of young adults depend on their parents to some extent for money. Even more surprising is that the median income of young adults in 1982 was $31,583 and last year it was $30,604 for the same age group! Income is dropping and people are looking for ways to earn additional income outside of their 9 to 5 jobs. That’s where you can come in playing the hero and helping others realize their dream income.

Finally, go online and talk about your product. Make the affiliate marketers come to you and have the luxury of picking the best candidates. You will need some help in marketing your affiliate program so target a marketer who’s experienced in affiliate program and SEO.


Source by Lina Stakauskaite

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Recession Is Here… Six Costly Mistakes Home Sellers Make During Recessions And How To Avoid Them




The U.S. is officially in a recession. What is a recession? A recession is a business cycle contraction or general economic decline due to significant drop in spending and other commercial activities. Most pundits and politicians will blame Covid-19 crisis for the recession, but even pre-Covid-19 the proverbial writing was on the wall.

The U.S. had over 120 months of economic growth, which was the longest expansion in the modern history. Other indicators, such as negative yield spread on treasuries (long term bonds having lower interest rates than short term T-notes), were pointing to an imminent change of the economic cycle and an impending recession. The only real question was: when and how bad?

Then Covid-19 came… If the cycle was going to change anyway, Covid-19 acted as a huge and unexpected accelerant to make the recession much more immediate and severe.

Inevitably during recessions all classes of real estate, including residential homes and condominiums, will be negatively impacted as lower consumer spending and higher unemployment rates affect real estate prices and marketing times.

Here are the six costly mistakes home and other real property sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them:

Mistake #1: This will pass and real estate market will be hot again soon

First thing to remember is that real estate cycles are much longer than general economic cycles. Even if the general economy recovers, which eventually it always does, a typical real estate cycle takes as long as 10 to 15 years. The cycle has four key stages: Top, Decline, Bottom and Rise.

Let us consider the last real estate cycle, which lasted approximately 14 years:

  • 2006 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2006 to 2012 – Prices Decline
  • 2012 – Prices hit the Bottom (Trough)
  • 2012 to 2019 – Prices Rise*
  • 2020 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2020 to? – Prices Decline

*NOTE: In 2016 the national residential real estate price index reached its pre-recession 2006 peak levels. It took 10 years for the real estate market to recover.

The way to avoid this mistake is to recognize that real estate cycles take years to run and plan accordingly. Additionally, nobody knows for sure when the prices will hit the top or bottom until after the fact.

Mistake #2: Low interest rates will make the economy and real estate market rebound

Between 2006 and 2011 the interest rates (Fed Funds) were continuously cut by the Federal Reserve Board and went from low 5% to almost 0%. However, that did not stop the real estate recession and depreciation of property values.

Undoubtedly, low interest rates made the economic decline and real estate recession less severe and saved some properties from foreclosures, but it still took six painful years for the real estate market to hit the bottom and then four more years for the prices to go back to their pre-recession levels.

Some markets had never fully recovered. For example, residential home prices in some parts of California, Arizona and Nevada are still below their 2006 highs.

To avoid this mistake, one needs to realize that although low interest rates help stimulate the economy and the real estate market, they do not cure them.

Mistake #3: I don’t need to sell now, so I don’t care

If you do not need to sell until the cycle plays out, which typically is over ten years, then you will not be as affected, especially if you have a strong equity position, limited mortgage debt, and solid liquid assets.

However, it is good to keep in mind that “life happens” and either professional or personal circumstances can change and we may need to sell property before the downturn runs its course.

Furthermore, if a property has a mortgages and its value declines to the point being “upside down,” meaning the mortgage loan balance exceeds the value of the property, then the options of selling, refinancing or even obtaining an equity line of credit, will be significantly limited.

This does not mean that everybody should be rushing into selling their real estate if there is no need to do so, just keep in mind that circumstances may and often do change and property options will be affected, so plan in advance. As one wise proverb says: “Dig your well before your thirst.”

Mistake #4: I’m selling, but I won’t sell below my “bottom line” price

This is a common and potentially very costly mistake. Generally speaking, every seller wants to sell for the highest price and every buyer wants to pay the lowest price. That’s nothing new. When selling real estate, most sellers want to achieve a certain price point and/or have a “bottom line.”

However, it is important to understand that the market does not care what the Seller, or his/her Agent, think the property value should be at. The market value is a price a willing and able buyer will pay, when a property is offered on an open market for a reasonable amount of time.

Overpricing property based on Seller’s subjective value or what is sometimes called an “aspirational price,” especially in a declining market, is a sure first step to losing money. When a property lingers on the market for an extended period of time, carrying costs will continue to accumulate and property value will depreciate in line with the market conditions.

Additionally, properties with prolonged marketing times tend to get “stale” and attract fewer buyers. The solution is to honestly assess your selling objectives, including the desired time-frame, evaluate your property’s attributes and physical condition, analyze comparable sales and market conditions, and then decide on market-based pricing and marketing strategies.

Mistake #5: I will list my property for sale only with Agent who promises the highest price

Real estate is a competitive business and real estate agents compete to list properties for sale which generate their sales commission incomes. It is not unusual that Seller will interview several agents before signing an exclusive listing agreement and go with the agent who agrees to list the property at the highest price, often regardless if such price is market-based.

Similarly to Mistake #4, this mistake can be very damaging to Sellers, as overpriced properties stay on the market for extended periods of time costing Sellers carrying expenses such as mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance.

Furthermore, there is the “opportunity cost” since the equity is “frozen,” and it cannot be deployed elsewhere till the property is sold. However, the most expensive cost is the loss of property value while the real estate market deteriorates.

During the last recession, we have seen multiple cases where overpriced properties stayed on the market for years and ended up selling for 25% to 40% below their initial fair market values.

The solution is to make sure that your pricing strategy is based on the market, not empty promises or wishful thinking.

Mistake #6: I will list my property only with Agent who charges the lowest commission

Real estate commission rates are negotiable and not set by law. A commission usually represents the highest transactional expense in selling real properties and is typically split between Brokers and Agents who work on the transaction

Some real estate agents offer discounted commissions, in order to induce Sellers to list their properties with them. But does paying a discounted commission ensure savings for the Seller? Not necessarily.

For example, if the final sales price is 5% to 10% below property’s highest market value, which is not that unusual, due to inadequate marketing, bad pricing strategy, and/or poor negotiation skills, it will easily wipe out any commission savings and actually cost the Seller tens of thousands of dollars in lost revenues.

The solution is to engage an agent who is a “Trusted Advisor,” not just a “Salesperson.” A Trusted Advisor will take his/her time and effort to do the following: 1) Perform Needs Analysis: listen and understand your property needs and concerns; 2) Prepare Property Analysis: thoroughly evaluate your property and market conditions; 3) Execute Sales and Marketing Plan: prepare and implement custom sales and marketing plan for your property; and 4) Obtain Optimal Results: be your trusted advocate throughout the process and achieve the best possible outcome.

Finding such a real estate professional may not be always easy, but it certainly is worth the effort and will pay off at the end.

In conclusion, this article has outlined six costly mistakes real estate Sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them. The first mistake is not understanding that real estate cycles are long and take years. The second mistake is a misconception that low interest rates alone will create a recovery. Another mistake is not realizing that circumstances may change and not planning in advance. Mistakes number four, five and six pertain to understanding the market value, proper pricing and selecting the right real estate professional.

By understanding and avoiding these mistakes, real estate Sellers have significantly better chances of minimizing the negative impact of a recession while selling their properties.


Source by Robert W. Dudek

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Useful Tips To Build The Best Gaming Computer




Every gamer will want their computer to be the best gaming computer among their peers. Sometimes, with a little knowledge and tips and tricks, it is possible to build the best gaming computer and show it off to your peers. This article will show you how:

1) You can’t get the best gaming computer from computer retailers

If you want to get the best gaming computer, you have to build your own. Different gamers have different requirement for their gaming machine. Unless you are willing to pay a high price, you will not be able to buy a commercial computer that fulfills all your gaming needs. The only option you have is to build your own gaming computer.

2) You don’t have to be rich to build the best gaming computer

It is not necessary to burn a hole in your pocket to build the best gaming computer. With some due diligence, do some market research and compare prices around the marketplace. Merchant such as TigerDirect and NewEgg give regular discount to their products and you could save a lot of money if you catch them during their promotional period.

3) Most expensive parts do not have to be the best part

Sometime, the latest model or the most expensive model does not have to be the best part for your computer. It requires various components to work together to form the best computer system. When choosing a computer part, what matters is how well it can integrate with the rest of the components. Compatibility is more important than individual performance. What use is there if you spend lot of money on the latest quad-core processor and find that your motherboard doesn’t support it?

4) You don’t need to change the whole PC to own the best gaming computer

It is a misconception that you have to change the whole gaming machine to build the best gaming computer. If you already have a good barebone system, what you need to do is to upgrade the necessary parts and your gaming computer can roar back to life instantly.

5) Brand is important

Unless you want to see your computer system malfunction every few days, it is important that you purchase the parts from branded manufacturers with strict quality control. Motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, ABIT, ASUS are some quality brands that you can consider

If you follow diligently to the tips stated above. You will be on your way to build the best gaming computer. While price can be an issue, it is better not to scrimp on important computer parts such as motherboard, CPU, RAM and graphics card as it will cost you more to upgrade in the future.


Source by Damien Oh

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