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Investing In Quality Pumps for Saltwater Disposal in the Oilfields, a Primer

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Hi Alex, Thanks for your time today!

1-Can you tell our readers about your company and background? 2-With respect to SWD wells what should operators keep in mind?

M and M Pump and Supply consists of three companies: 1. M and M Pump and Supply Inc., Clay City and Mattoon, Illinois selling Oilfield Tubulars and Sucker Rods, Tanks both steel and fiberglass, downhole oilfield pumps, positive displacement and centrifugal pumps, pipe, valves and fittings and just about anything that is used to drill, complete, or equip an oil or gas well. We also service and repair natural gas engines, salt water pumps and have a complete inventory of fibergass pipe and fittings for salt water injection lines. 2. PD Service Co., Clay City, Illinois furnishing oilfield trucking, oilfield construction crews, tank trucks, tubing and casing testing and inspection crews, frac and swab tank rentals, steamers and oilfield threading services. 3. McCoy Machine and Gear Co., Flora, Illinois furnishing complete oilfield machine shop, new and rebuilt pumping units and mobile service trucks for field repair of pumping units and salt water pumps and manufacturing Miller Sand Pumps.

With regards to salt water disposal and injection wells I would recommend running a good string of Sealtite Plastic or CPVC lined tubing to protect against internal corrosion and being sure to protect the anular space between the casing and the outside of the tubing with a good corrosion inhibitor, oxygen scavenger and biocide in either liquid or pellet form. If you are water flooding be sure to choose a good producer for your injection well as these seem to make the best injection wells with the best waterflood results. Needless to say have a petroleum engineer analyze your field for recoverable barrels of oil and desired injection rates per injection well to improve you odds of the best results from your waterflood. Establish a good chemical program for your injected water for control of corrosion and scaling tendencies. Starting this program immediately is vital to minimizing problems down the road that could lead to excessive pulling of both producing and injection wells in a waterflood. Be sure to have a chemical company analyze injected and produced water for compatibility to prevent possible severe scaling and corrosion down the road.

3-What type of pumps work best for SWD wells? How do they work?

Everything with regards to pump selection for a salt water disposal or injection well is defined by barrels per day of water to be injected and maximum pressure required to inject the water at that rate. Because most injection wells require anywhere from moderate(300 to 700PSI) injection pressures to very high pressures(over 2000PSI) a positive displacement pump such as a plunger or piston pump or a diaphragm style pump is usually required. All positive displacement pumps require good water supply at the pump intake and it is very important to be sure this is achieved either by oversizing and flooding the pump suction or charging the pump suction with a properly sized centrifugal pump. Pumps of this type are usually powered by either an electric motor or gas engine with adequate horsepower to handle the maximum flow rate and pressures that the pump will be subject to. Brake Horsepower requirement is calculated by the following formula: Gallons per minute times Maximum Pressure times a constant of .000648 equals Maximum Brake Horsepower Required.

4-I’ve heard much about Hydra-Cell and Cat pumps, are there any other brands to consider?

Some of the more common brands of Positive Displacement Pumps are Gaso, Wheatley, Oilwell, Gardner Denver, Bethlehem(B-Master), Kerr, Myers, Union, Ingersoll Rand, Cat, Hydracell among others. The key to choosing which pump works best for your application once again depends on barrels per day to be injected and the pressure needed to accomplish this. Another key consideration would be having a distributor that stocks parts for and services the brand of pump you are going to purchase so that downtime for pump servicing and repairs can be kept to a minimum. Hydracell Pumps are in most cases less expensive than plunger pumps if you can find one that meets your volume and pressure requirements. These pumps will also probably require completea replacement after 5 to 10 years in service. Big plunger pumps such as the Gaso, Wheatley, Oilwell, Gardner Denver, Kerr, B-Master can run for 40 to 50 years if properly mainained and rebuilt every 3 to 10 years depending on service conditions.

Cat pumps fill the niche for low volume, very high pressure applications particularly well at a reasonable cost, but replacement part costs tend to be quite expensive when the pump needs serviced. Probably the most important thing you can do for any of the above pumps is to develop a good preventative maintenance program with particular attention being paid to the condition of the oil in the power end of the pump. Pumps in this service frequently run 20 hours a day or more so it is imperative that a daily preventative maintenance inspection is made and that fluid change intervals are followed religiously.

5-Do certain brands have pros and cons?

6-Any maintenance or ongoing usage precautions to take with these type of pumps?

#5 and #6- I partially answered these questions when responding to question #4. Other maintenance considerations. Be sure you purchase a packing gland wrench for tightening plunger packing on plunger pumps as well as a hammer style valve cover wrench for pumps with threaded valve covers. Some pumps use a deep socket packing gland wrench and some require a spanner wrench. In addition to daily power end gear oil inspection, plunger packing should be tightened if plungers are leaking more than 3 to 5 drips per plunger per minute, however it is imperative not to overtighten plunger packing as ceramic plungers which are usually used in salt water service will break if subject to heat over 150F and this can occur if packing is overtightened. It is usually best to let plungers run for several minutes after tightening packing, turn the pump off and then feel the ceramic part of the plunger and make sure it is not hot to the touch, if it is your packing is probably too tight.

If you have an injection well that goes on vacuum and want to suck your tanks dry, install a check valve with a heavy spring which will not allow the well to suck your tanks down. This will prevent plunger breakage due to the pump going on air and sucking any BS on top of your water into the pumps valves. I would also recommend installing a Y-strainer on the intake line to the pump to prevent debris from plugging the pumps valves. Be sure to inspect this strainer on a regular basis and after the initial hour of pump operation and after 24 hours of initial operation, as there is likely to be debris in newly assembled lines that could plug the strainer. When running Hydracell Pumps check the gear oil daily as if you poke a hole in one of the diaphragms salt water will have direct access to the pumps powerend. Finally be sure to oversize the pumps intake(suction) line and use as few 90 degree els as possible to insure adequate fluid supply to the pump. Remember the old adage that 6-90degree els nearly equals a bull plug!!

7-Should an operator over compensate and buy a pump that is much higher Horse Power than is indicated?

A certain amount of safety factor needs to be built into all pump and motor design in the event injection volumes exceed original estimates or more pressure is required to dispose of injected water than was originally estimated. It is also wise not to run any pump at its maximum recommended RPM as this will lead to higher maintenance and rebuild costs than a pump being run at 80 to 85% of its maximum capabilities. I would recommend designing your pump system at 75 to 80% of a pumps volume and pressure capabilities. This will allow for some additional volume and pressure if needed without causing maintenance headaches down the road.

8-What is a common problem you see in the field?

Frequent problems which I see in the field are: A. Failure to properly maintain powerend oil quality leading to expensive powerend overhauls. B. Failure to oversize pump suction lines and allow for adequate water supply to the pumps intake valves leading to premature valve failure. C.Failure to install a bypass valve on pump discharge lines leading to catastrophic falure such as a broken pump crankshaft is someone forgets and turns the pump on against a closed valve. D. Failure to screen incoming water to pump and failure to regularly inspect screen in suction Y-Strainers, particularly when water is being hauled into the lease by tank trucks(Note; A settling tank is best used when water is being hauled into the lease by tank trucks.) E. Failure to install a bleeder valve on pump discharge line to allow for bleeding any trapped air out of the pump. Failure to religiously follow a daily and weekly pump inspection and maintenance schedule.

9-Please Tell our readers about how to handle corrosive fluids in the pump?

In order to properly prevent corrosion in a salt water pump, the fluid end of the pump should generally be cast from either aluminum bronze or 316 Stainless Steel which are highly corrosion resistant. In some brines which are not too corrosive and where pressures are not to high a bronze fluid end will provide satisfactory service at a price which is significantly less expensive than aluminum bronze or stainless steel. However, standard brass has limited resistance to hydrogen sulfide and will often wash out quickly when handling brines that carry H2S. It is also a good idea to chemically treat injected water for both corrosion and scaling tendencies as this will prevent your injection well from plugging off and protect your downhole tubulars.

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Source by Hunter Goodman

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Where to Find Those Efficient and Hardworking Affiliates?

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Everyone wants a hardworking affiliate, employee, associate, partner, or even spouse, and why not? It’s the next best thing to doing the work yourself. However with the massive outbreak of work and income opportunities available online, how can you beat everyone else and find that one (or more) ideal person who will make your online business explode with success? Here are some of the most ingenious and uncommon ways to snag the idea affiliates for your affiliate program

Direct Sales Agents

Direct sales people are really one of the most enterprising, hard-working individuals in business. They mostly work on commissions or rebates and are willing to literally go door-to-door offering their products to anyone and everyone they bump into. Imagine how much easier their job would be if they could be an affiliate and simply work via the Internet and a mobile device or desktop.

Also, most direct sales people tend to carry more than one brand in their product arsenal so signing up as an affiliate would be almost the same type of work but using a different approach.

Colleges and Universities

Many college kids would be interested in a part-time income opportunity if it would mean funds to help pay for their education, loan, or partying. All you have to do is make sure to offer them products they can endorse as a student.

Freelancers

Did you know that the U.S. Census Bureau’s latest annual report show that 75% of U.S. businesses used freelancers in 2011? Freelancers earned a whopping US$990 billion in 2011 which is a 4.1% increase from the previous year. The only industries where the number of freelancers decreased were in insurance, finance, and construction. Most probably your affiliate program isn’t a part of these 3 industries.

Furthermore, online business and finance experts are predicting the growth to increase incrementally every year even with an economy that is improving. People just want income security and more control over their earnings. With the spate of lay-offs, it’s understandable why many would prefer to work as an affiliate than as an employee.

Scout For Them At Affiliate Conventions

There are annual affiliate conventions held in different cities around the country. You should try to catch one when it is held somewhere near your location. The average turn-out for these types of conventions has increased regularly over the years. Last year, many of them were sold out weeks before the event.

Advertise!

The US Census Bureau has said that as of 2012, 15% of Americans are poor, 43% of young adults depend on their parents to some extent for money. Even more surprising is that the median income of young adults in 1982 was $31,583 and last year it was $30,604 for the same age group! Income is dropping and people are looking for ways to earn additional income outside of their 9 to 5 jobs. That’s where you can come in playing the hero and helping others realize their dream income.

Finally, go online and talk about your product. Make the affiliate marketers come to you and have the luxury of picking the best candidates. You will need some help in marketing your affiliate program so target a marketer who’s experienced in affiliate program and SEO.

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Source by Lina Stakauskaite

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Recession Is Here… Six Costly Mistakes Home Sellers Make During Recessions And How To Avoid Them

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The U.S. is officially in a recession. What is a recession? A recession is a business cycle contraction or general economic decline due to significant drop in spending and other commercial activities. Most pundits and politicians will blame Covid-19 crisis for the recession, but even pre-Covid-19 the proverbial writing was on the wall.

The U.S. had over 120 months of economic growth, which was the longest expansion in the modern history. Other indicators, such as negative yield spread on treasuries (long term bonds having lower interest rates than short term T-notes), were pointing to an imminent change of the economic cycle and an impending recession. The only real question was: when and how bad?

Then Covid-19 came… If the cycle was going to change anyway, Covid-19 acted as a huge and unexpected accelerant to make the recession much more immediate and severe.

Inevitably during recessions all classes of real estate, including residential homes and condominiums, will be negatively impacted as lower consumer spending and higher unemployment rates affect real estate prices and marketing times.

Here are the six costly mistakes home and other real property sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them:

Mistake #1: This will pass and real estate market will be hot again soon

First thing to remember is that real estate cycles are much longer than general economic cycles. Even if the general economy recovers, which eventually it always does, a typical real estate cycle takes as long as 10 to 15 years. The cycle has four key stages: Top, Decline, Bottom and Rise.

Let us consider the last real estate cycle, which lasted approximately 14 years:

  • 2006 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2006 to 2012 – Prices Decline
  • 2012 – Prices hit the Bottom (Trough)
  • 2012 to 2019 – Prices Rise*
  • 2020 – Prices hit the Top
  • 2020 to? – Prices Decline

*NOTE: In 2016 the national residential real estate price index reached its pre-recession 2006 peak levels. It took 10 years for the real estate market to recover.

The way to avoid this mistake is to recognize that real estate cycles take years to run and plan accordingly. Additionally, nobody knows for sure when the prices will hit the top or bottom until after the fact.

Mistake #2: Low interest rates will make the economy and real estate market rebound

Between 2006 and 2011 the interest rates (Fed Funds) were continuously cut by the Federal Reserve Board and went from low 5% to almost 0%. However, that did not stop the real estate recession and depreciation of property values.

Undoubtedly, low interest rates made the economic decline and real estate recession less severe and saved some properties from foreclosures, but it still took six painful years for the real estate market to hit the bottom and then four more years for the prices to go back to their pre-recession levels.

Some markets had never fully recovered. For example, residential home prices in some parts of California, Arizona and Nevada are still below their 2006 highs.

To avoid this mistake, one needs to realize that although low interest rates help stimulate the economy and the real estate market, they do not cure them.

Mistake #3: I don’t need to sell now, so I don’t care

If you do not need to sell until the cycle plays out, which typically is over ten years, then you will not be as affected, especially if you have a strong equity position, limited mortgage debt, and solid liquid assets.

However, it is good to keep in mind that “life happens” and either professional or personal circumstances can change and we may need to sell property before the downturn runs its course.

Furthermore, if a property has a mortgages and its value declines to the point being “upside down,” meaning the mortgage loan balance exceeds the value of the property, then the options of selling, refinancing or even obtaining an equity line of credit, will be significantly limited.

This does not mean that everybody should be rushing into selling their real estate if there is no need to do so, just keep in mind that circumstances may and often do change and property options will be affected, so plan in advance. As one wise proverb says: “Dig your well before your thirst.”

Mistake #4: I’m selling, but I won’t sell below my “bottom line” price

This is a common and potentially very costly mistake. Generally speaking, every seller wants to sell for the highest price and every buyer wants to pay the lowest price. That’s nothing new. When selling real estate, most sellers want to achieve a certain price point and/or have a “bottom line.”

However, it is important to understand that the market does not care what the Seller, or his/her Agent, think the property value should be at. The market value is a price a willing and able buyer will pay, when a property is offered on an open market for a reasonable amount of time.

Overpricing property based on Seller’s subjective value or what is sometimes called an “aspirational price,” especially in a declining market, is a sure first step to losing money. When a property lingers on the market for an extended period of time, carrying costs will continue to accumulate and property value will depreciate in line with the market conditions.

Additionally, properties with prolonged marketing times tend to get “stale” and attract fewer buyers. The solution is to honestly assess your selling objectives, including the desired time-frame, evaluate your property’s attributes and physical condition, analyze comparable sales and market conditions, and then decide on market-based pricing and marketing strategies.

Mistake #5: I will list my property for sale only with Agent who promises the highest price

Real estate is a competitive business and real estate agents compete to list properties for sale which generate their sales commission incomes. It is not unusual that Seller will interview several agents before signing an exclusive listing agreement and go with the agent who agrees to list the property at the highest price, often regardless if such price is market-based.

Similarly to Mistake #4, this mistake can be very damaging to Sellers, as overpriced properties stay on the market for extended periods of time costing Sellers carrying expenses such as mortgage payments, property taxes, insurance, utilities and maintenance.

Furthermore, there is the “opportunity cost” since the equity is “frozen,” and it cannot be deployed elsewhere till the property is sold. However, the most expensive cost is the loss of property value while the real estate market deteriorates.

During the last recession, we have seen multiple cases where overpriced properties stayed on the market for years and ended up selling for 25% to 40% below their initial fair market values.

The solution is to make sure that your pricing strategy is based on the market, not empty promises or wishful thinking.

Mistake #6: I will list my property only with Agent who charges the lowest commission

Real estate commission rates are negotiable and not set by law. A commission usually represents the highest transactional expense in selling real properties and is typically split between Brokers and Agents who work on the transaction

Some real estate agents offer discounted commissions, in order to induce Sellers to list their properties with them. But does paying a discounted commission ensure savings for the Seller? Not necessarily.

For example, if the final sales price is 5% to 10% below property’s highest market value, which is not that unusual, due to inadequate marketing, bad pricing strategy, and/or poor negotiation skills, it will easily wipe out any commission savings and actually cost the Seller tens of thousands of dollars in lost revenues.

The solution is to engage an agent who is a “Trusted Advisor,” not just a “Salesperson.” A Trusted Advisor will take his/her time and effort to do the following: 1) Perform Needs Analysis: listen and understand your property needs and concerns; 2) Prepare Property Analysis: thoroughly evaluate your property and market conditions; 3) Execute Sales and Marketing Plan: prepare and implement custom sales and marketing plan for your property; and 4) Obtain Optimal Results: be your trusted advocate throughout the process and achieve the best possible outcome.

Finding such a real estate professional may not be always easy, but it certainly is worth the effort and will pay off at the end.

In conclusion, this article has outlined six costly mistakes real estate Sellers make during recessions and how to avoid them. The first mistake is not understanding that real estate cycles are long and take years. The second mistake is a misconception that low interest rates alone will create a recovery. Another mistake is not realizing that circumstances may change and not planning in advance. Mistakes number four, five and six pertain to understanding the market value, proper pricing and selecting the right real estate professional.

By understanding and avoiding these mistakes, real estate Sellers have significantly better chances of minimizing the negative impact of a recession while selling their properties.

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Source by Robert W. Dudek

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Useful Tips To Build The Best Gaming Computer

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Every gamer will want their computer to be the best gaming computer among their peers. Sometimes, with a little knowledge and tips and tricks, it is possible to build the best gaming computer and show it off to your peers. This article will show you how:

1) You can’t get the best gaming computer from computer retailers

If you want to get the best gaming computer, you have to build your own. Different gamers have different requirement for their gaming machine. Unless you are willing to pay a high price, you will not be able to buy a commercial computer that fulfills all your gaming needs. The only option you have is to build your own gaming computer.

2) You don’t have to be rich to build the best gaming computer

It is not necessary to burn a hole in your pocket to build the best gaming computer. With some due diligence, do some market research and compare prices around the marketplace. Merchant such as TigerDirect and NewEgg give regular discount to their products and you could save a lot of money if you catch them during their promotional period.

3) Most expensive parts do not have to be the best part

Sometime, the latest model or the most expensive model does not have to be the best part for your computer. It requires various components to work together to form the best computer system. When choosing a computer part, what matters is how well it can integrate with the rest of the components. Compatibility is more important than individual performance. What use is there if you spend lot of money on the latest quad-core processor and find that your motherboard doesn’t support it?

4) You don’t need to change the whole PC to own the best gaming computer

It is a misconception that you have to change the whole gaming machine to build the best gaming computer. If you already have a good barebone system, what you need to do is to upgrade the necessary parts and your gaming computer can roar back to life instantly.

5) Brand is important

Unless you want to see your computer system malfunction every few days, it is important that you purchase the parts from branded manufacturers with strict quality control. Motherboard brand such as Gigabyte, ABIT, ASUS are some quality brands that you can consider

If you follow diligently to the tips stated above. You will be on your way to build the best gaming computer. While price can be an issue, it is better not to scrimp on important computer parts such as motherboard, CPU, RAM and graphics card as it will cost you more to upgrade in the future.

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Source by Damien Oh

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